There was a time, in the 1950s, when leukemia and other blood cancers were pretty much a death sentence. There was a last-resort treatment: a bone marrow transplant, which can make new blood cells to replace cancerous ones killed by cancer treatments. Back then, however, recipients of bone marrow transplants hardly ever survived for very long. In some cases, their bodies rejected the transplanted marrow. In others, the marrow itself - which contains immune system cells - would attack the patients' lungs, kidneys and other organs. The few successes occurred when a patient received marrow from an identical twin.
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